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圓喜藝術中心-電子報

中國四大繡─蘇繡、湘繡、蜀繡、粵繡

• 發表於 2011年09月號

刺繡,又稱絲繡,是中國優秀的民族傳統工藝之一。據《尚書》記載在四千前的章服制度,就規定衣畫而裳繡;另在《詩經》中也有素衣朱繡的描繪。宋代時期崇尚刺繡服裝的風氣,已逐漸在民間廣泛流行,這也促使了中國絲繡工藝的發展。明代刺繡已成為一種極具表現力的藝術品,先後產生號稱四大名繡的蘇繡、湘繡、蜀繡、粵繡。善於刺繡的聲譽名揚大江南北,並得到朝廷的賞識。到了清代刺繡不僅震海內,而且蜚聲海外,吸引了不少國外商人大量訂購刺繡品。

蘇繡

發源於蘇州,有2000多年的歷史,為中國四大繡之首。蘇繡工藝是以繡針引彩線,在絲綢、棉布等面料上刺綴運針,通過繡跡構成花樣、圖案、文字以取得藝術效果。其繡刺技法甚為獨特,至少有100種以上精巧的針法繡技,如五彩繽紛的衣錦紋滿繡 、繡畫合一的線條繡、精巧細膩的雙面繡和暈針、紗針、點針、複蓋針 等都是十分獨特而精湛的技法由以亂針繡的發明更為四大繡中獨到技法。蘇繡是我國著名的手工藝品,素以繡工精細,針法活波,圖案秀麗,色彩雅潔弛名中外,多次被國家領導人作為國家級禮品送給外賓。

 
老虎 (圓喜藝術中心收藏)


湘繡

起源於湖南民間刺繡,具有精湛的技藝和獨特的藝術風格,。湘繡是以硬緞、交織軟緞、透明玻璃紗、尼綸等為原料繡制的精細工藝品,繡品既有名貴的欣賞藝術品,也有美觀適用的日用品,主要品種有條屏、畫片、被面、枕套、床罩、靠墊、桌布、手帕及各種繡衣等。

 

蜀繡

也稱川繡即以四川成都為中心的刺繡品總稱,與蜀錦一起被稱為蜀中之寶。蜀繡具有悠久的歷史,當時的生產品種主要是官服、禮品、日用花衣、邊 花、嫁奩、彩帳和條屏等,當今繡品中,既有巨幅條屏,也有袖珍小件;既有高精欣賞名品,也有普通日用消費品。比如北京人民大會堂四川廳的巨幅芙蓉鯉魚座屏和蜀繡名品蜀宮樂女演樂圖掛屏、 雙面異色的水草鯉魚座屏、大小熊貓座屏,就是蜀繡中的代表作。  

 

粵繡

據傳創始於少數民族,明中後期形成特色,廣東地區主產。其特色有五:一是用線多樣,除絲線、絨線外,也用孔譽毛撚樓作線,或用馬尾纏絨作線。二是用色明快,對比強烈。三是多用金線作刺繡花紋的輪廓線。四是裝飾花紋繁縟豐滿,熱鬧歡快。常用百鳥朝鳳、海產魚蝦、佛手瓜果一類有地方特色的題材。五是繡工多為男工所任。繡品品種豐富,有被面、枕套、床楣、披巾、頭巾、台帷、繡服、鞋帽、戲衣等,也有鏡屏,掛幛、條幅等。 

 

(資料來源:網上北語)

 

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